Malnutrition Rises in the costs of living make poor people less able to afford items.
Written by Kyle D.
As a well-known maxim about the early years reminds us, appetites tend to serve the survival and well-being of the infant. The discussion that follows will review what we have come to understand about the unique contribution that men bring to the lives of young children, and how male presence works to promote development.
Much of the literature of the past several decades that has focused on men and young children focuses on biological fathers specifically. But to the child, emotional paternity is what matters, and it is the child who eventually designates emotional paternity. Not better not worse, but differently.
How does this happen?
And what difference—if any does it make to the baby? This transition is a very complex task, both psychologically and physically. Across many cultures, men are often profoundly involved in pregnancy and delivery.
Their physiological involvement may range from weight gain to migrating aches and pains in the abdomen and mouth. Everyone knows about the food cravings of pregnant women, but their male partners have almost as many—especially for dairy products.
Many expectant men experience increased —sometimes overwhelming—anxiety about being an adequate provider and protector, not to mention a competent nurturer.
This is not to say that to miss it is to forever be left behind, as there are many opportunities to catch up. The birthing experience gives a father, especially one who is new to the role, a leg up on becoming attached to his baby in a way that is unique to him and his own feelings about the child.
The power of being there as a witness to the birth holds whether the father has had the chance to prepare for the event or not.
He may be more comfortable with the physical event of birthing if he has been prepared, but the attachment experience between father and newborn seems to be an intrinsically powerful one. But the period immediately after birth can find fathers vulnerable as well as engrossed.
They feel less control over their own lives, inadequate to the task at hand, and marginalized in their relationship with their spouse. The vulnerability of new fathers can be hard for new mothers to fathom.
A new mothers is anxious to enjoy and practice her new maternal competence. Having her baby respond to her care of him or her is the best antidote to all her worry and concern about her inadequacy. Precisely the same is true for fathers.
In short order, the mother has the exclusivity she wants, but she has unwittingly lost her most important partner in care of the child. Does Paternal Care Matter to Babies? If fathers have the capacity to nurture their children competently but differently from mothers, does this matter to the children?
Apparently so, according to two decades of research. Eight-week-old infants can discriminate between their fathers and their mothers, and respond in a differential way to their approach.
When they expected their father to hold them, babies hunched up their shoulders, widened their eyes, and accelerated their heart and respiratory rates. These subtle face-to-face differences in play, modulation, verbal and physical contact are mutually appreciated by the child, the father, and the mother.
Positive Effects of Male Involvement on Children's Development Male involvement, supported by responses from babies and women, has measurable, positive effects on the development of children.
Examining 2-month-old infants from middle income, two-parent families, Parke and Sawin found that the more fathers participated in bathing, feeding, diapering, and other routines of physical care, the more socially responsive the babies were. Furthermore, a year later these babies seemed more resilient in the face of stressful situations.
Male involvement has positive effects on the development of vulnerable, as well as typical, infants and young children. In their studies of preterm infants, Gaiter and Yogman found that early paternal involvement had a significant mitigating effect on the long-term vulnerability of these at-risk infants.
Both researchers found that fathers who visited their babies in the hospital frequently, touched them, and talked with the nurses about them, were significantly more involved with their infants up to a year after discharge from the hospital.
Potentially as important were data suggesting that that the more present and involved the father, the more rapid the weight gain and earlier the discharge of the baby.
Pause for a moment and think about how easy it is for the fathers in your NICU—or those you have known—to find their babies, touch them, and talk to you or anyone about how they are doing. The very vulnerability of the preterm infant is an important factor in eliciting protective and providing impulses from men.
We have learned that infants can develop deep emotional attachments to their fathers which do not depend on the security they derive from their different attachment to their mothers. As we have noted earlier, even very young infants experience men as different from mothers in smell, size, style, feel, sound, and overall presence.
When the father is there, he matters, but in ways that are different from mother. Through these experiences, babies start to learn from their fathers about comings and goings, transitions, separations, and loving, but non-maternal, nurturing.
That is why so many toddlers turn so decisively to fathers in the second year, as they practice their own autonomy and differentiation from their primary caretakers, mothers. But here, too, research concerning the effect of male care on both man and child is encouraging.examples of ways in which parents and professionals can work together at different stages in promoting the development of children; and it discusses the difficulties and obstacles which They include teachers working with children and young people of all ages, whether attending school or the child's development.
Parents know their own. parenting’ for children’s and young people’s troublesome behaviour. What can research tell us about the influence of commissioned by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation to inform its own Parenting Research and Development programme.
Parenting and the different ways it can affect children’s lives: research evidence. All nannies’s working with children and young people have an absolute duty to safeguard and protect children/young people from harm and this mean breaking confidences by sharing information in order to protect and dealing with the very difficult situations that can arise as a result.
Explain agreed ways of working with employer within the wider context of the sector Explain how own role fits within the delivery of the service provided Explain the effect of own role on service provision social care or children and young people’s sector.
It covers: • statutory responsibilities and rights of employees. It is my intention in this enquiry to consider whether my own professional practice in the classroom reflects my personal value of lifelong learning with its embodied attitudes, and what impact this has on the learning of the children I teach.
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