Anatomy of the Brain There are different ways of dividing the brain anatomically into regions. The forebrain or prosencephalon is made up of our incredible cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus and pineal gland among other features. Neuroanatomists call the cerebral area the telencephalon and use the term diencephalon or interbrain to refer to the area where our thalamus, hypothalamus and pineal gland reside. The midbrain or mesencephalonlocated near the very center of the brain between the interbrain and the hindbrain, is composed of a portion of the brainstem.
Lightspring Definition The brain is the part of the central nervous system located in the skull. It controls the mental processes and physical actions of a human being. Description The brain, along with the spinal cord and network of nerves, controls information flow throughout the body, voluntary actions such as walking, reading, and talking, and involuntary reactions such as breathing and digestion.
The human brain is a soft, shiny, grayish-white, mushroom-shaped structure. The brain of an average adult weighs about 3 lb 1. The brain is protected by the skull and a three-layered membrane called the meninges.
Glucose, oxygen, and certain ions pass easily across the blood-brain barrier into the brain, although other substances, such as antibiotics, do not. The four principal sections of the human brain are: The brain stem The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord.
Every message transmitted between the brain and spinal cord passes through the medulla oblongata —a part of the brain stem—via nerve fibers. The fibers on the right side of the medulla cross to the left and those on the left cross to the right.
As a result, each side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body. The medulla regulates the heartbeat, breathing rate, and blood-vessel diameters; it also helps coordinate swallowing, vomiting, hiccuping, coughing, and sneezing.
Another brain stem component, the pons meaning "bridge"conducts messages between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain, and between the different parts of the brain. The midbrain conveys impulses between the cerebral cortex, pons, and spinal cord, and also contains visual and audio reflex centers involving the movement of the eyeballs and head.
Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate in the underside of the brain, mostly from the brain stem. They leave the skull through openings and extend as peripheral nerves to their destinations. Among these cranial nerves are the olfactory nerves that bring messages about smell and the optic nerves that conduct visual information.
The diencephalon The diencephalon lies above the brain stem and embodies the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus is an important relay station for sensory information, interpreting sound, smell, taste, pain, pressure, temperature, and touch; it also regulates some emotions and memory.
The hypothalamus controls a number of body functions, such as heartbeat and digestion, and helps regulate the endocrine system hormonal system and normal body temperature.
The hypothalamus signals hunger and thirst, and also helps regulate sleep, anger, and aggression. Motor areas control muscle movements. Impulses from other motor areas direct hand muscles for writing and eye muscles for physical movement necessary for reading.
The cerebrum is divided into left and right hemispheres. A deep fissure separates the two, with the corpus callosum, a large bundle of fibers, connecting them. By studying patients whose corpora callosa had been destroyed, scientists realized that differences existed between the left and right sides of the cerebral cortex.
The left side of the brain functions mainly in speech, logic, writing, and arithmetic.
The right side, on the other hand, is more concerned with imagination, art, symbols, and spatial relations.The Mind as the Software of the Brain. Ned Block New York University. 1. Machine Intelligence.
2. Intelligence and Intentionality. 3. Functionalism and the Language of Thought. 4. . The brain is the part of the central nervous system located in the skull.
It controls the mental processes and physical actions of a human being.
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Description The brain, along with the spinal cord and network of nerves, controls information flow throughout the body, voluntary actions such as walking, reading, and talking, and involuntary. Techniques for Studying Brain Structure and Function Erin Hecht and Dietrich Stout Abstract Recent years have seen rapid improvement in neuroscience techniques for studying brain structure and function in humans and our primate relatives.
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