Ten Inventions from the Middle Ages that have had lasting importance, even to the present-day. A medieval clock in Prague 1. Mechanical Clock Timekeeping devices have emerged since the ancient world, but it was not until the Middle Ages that the technology was invented that allowed for mechanical clocks to accurately keep track of time. The knowledge of not only what hour it was, but even what minute and second it was, would change the way people scheduled their days and work patterns, especially in urban areas.
The Printing Press He who first shortened the labor of copyists by device of movable types was disbanding hired armies, and cashiering most kings and senates, and creating a whole new democratic world: In its migration northward, Renaissance culture adapted itself to conditions unknown in Italy, such as the growth of the monarchical state and the strength of lay piety.
In England France, and Spain, Renaissance culture tended to be court-centered and hence anti-republican. In Germany, no monarchical state existed but a vital tradition of lay piety was present in the Low Countries.
The Brethren of the Common Life, for example, was a lay movement emphasizing education and practical piety.
Intensely Christian and at the same time anticlerical shades of what was to come! Northern humanists were profoundly devoted to ancient learning but nothing in northern humanism compares to the paganizing trend associated with the Italian Renaissance. The northern humanists were chiefly interested in the problem of the ancient church and the question of what constituted original Christianity.
Two factors operated to accelerate the spread of Renaissance culture after Prosperity -- the result of peace and the decline of famine and the plague -- led to the founding of schools and colleges.
In these schools the sons of gentlemen and nobles would receive a humanistic education imported from Italy. The purpose of such an education was to prepare men for a career in the church or civil service.
Sometime in the 13th century, paper money and playing cards from China reached the West. They were "block-printed," that is, characters or pictures were carved into a wooden block, inked, and then transferred to paper. Since each word, phrase or picture was on a separate block, this method of reproduction was expensive and time-consuming.
The extension of literacy among laypeople and the greater reliance of governments and businesses upon written records created a demand for a less-costly method of reproducing the written word.
The import of paper from the East as well as "block-books" see abovewere major steps in transforming the printing of books.
However, woodcuts were not sufficiently durable as they tended to split in the press after repeated use. Furthermore, a new block had to be carved for each new impression, and the block was discarded as unusable as soon as a slightly different impression was needed.
By the middle of the 15th century several print masters were on the verge of perfecting the techniques of printing with movable metal type. The first man to demonstrate the practicability of movable type was Johannes Gutenberg c. A former stonecutter and goldsmith, Gutenberg devised an alloy of lead, tin and antimony that would melt at low temperature, cast well in the die, and be durable in the press.
When Gutenberg invented the printing press in , he forever changed the lives of people in Europe and, eventually, all over the world. Previously, bookmaking entailed copying all the words and illustrations by hand. Often the copying had been done onto parchment, animal skin that had been scraped until it was clean, smooth, and thin. Transcript of Middle Age Inventions The middle ages (5th – 15th Centuries AD), often termed The Dark Ages, were actually a time of great discovery and invention. The Middle ages also saw major advances in technologies that already existed, and the adoption of many Eastern technologies in the West. (printing press, end of Years War, fall of Constantinople) is often regarded as the correct end date in which case the Printing press could be said the be invented in the Middle Ages OR it could be the start of the Modern Period.
It was then possible to use and reuse the separate pieces of type, as long as the metal in which they were cast did not wear down, simply by arranging them in the desired order.
The mirror image of each letter rather than entire words or phraseswas carved in relief on a small block. Individual letters, easily movable, were put together to form words; words separated by blank spaces formed lines of type; and lines of type were brought together to make up a page.
Since letters could be arranged into any format, an infinite variety of texts could be printed by reusing and resetting the type. Bywith the aid of borrowed money, Gutenberg began his famous Bible project.
Two hundred copies of the two-volume Gutenberg Bible were printed, a small number of which were printed on vellum. Roughly fifty of all Gutenberg Bibles survive today. Before some European cities had acquired presses.
German masters held an early leadership, but the Italians soon challenged their preeminence. The Venetian printer Aldus Manutius published works, notably editions of the classics. The immediate effect of the printing press was to multiply the output and cut the costs of books.
It thus made information available to a much larger segment of the population who were, of course, eager for information of any variety. Libraries could now store greater quantities of information at much lower cost.
Printing also facilitated the dissemination and preservation of knowledge in standardized form -- this was most important in the advance of science, technology and scholarship.
The printing press certainly initiated an "information revolution" on par with the Internet today. Printing could and did spread new ideas quickly and with greater impact. Printing stimulated the literacy of lay people and eventually came to have a deep and lasting impact on their private lives.Johannes Gutenberg, in full Johann Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg, (born 14th century, Mainz [Germany]—died probably February 3, , Mainz), German craftsman and inventor who originated a method of printing from movable type.
Johan Gutenberg receives credit for creating the first printing press in European output of printed books skyrocketed into the hundreds of millions of copies during the following century. This expansion of access to information influenced every major cultural and political revolution for centuries.
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (/ ˈ ɡ uː t ən b ɜːr ɡ /; c. – February 3, ) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press. Inspiration and invention of the printing press.
Around the late s, a German man named Johann Gutenberg was quite desperate to find a way to make money. At the time, there was a trend in attaching small mirrors to one’s hat or clothes in order to soak up healing powers when visiting holy places or icons. Sep 22, · Top 10 Inventions of the Middle Ages.
Jamie Frater September 22, Share Stumble 2. Tweet. Pin 39 +1 The introduction of wheels to replace the runner allowed the weight of the plough to increase, and in turn allowed the use of a much larger mouldboard that was faced with metal.
The Printing Press of Gutenberg. In , Johannes Gutenberg invented the history-changing printing press. Before Gutenberg, books were hand copied in a slow process filled with human errors.
The press used movable type to transfer.