Final study guide eco 372 essay

Markets Economists study trade, production and consumption decisions, such as those that occur in a traditional marketplace.

Final study guide eco 372 essay

History of organic farming Agriculture was practiced for thousands of years without the use of artificial chemicals.

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Artificial fertilizers were first created during the midth century. These early fertilizers were cheap, powerful, and easy to transport in bulk. Biodynamic agriculture was the first modern system of agriculture to focus exclusively on organic methods.

Its development began in with a series of eight lectures on agriculture given by Rudolf Steiner.

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Among other things, they brought improved implements and improved animal husbandry methods from their scientific training; then by incorporating aspects of the local traditional methods, developed protocols for the rotation of crops, erosion prevention techniques, and the systematic use of composts and manures.

Howard attended the conference, where he met Pfeiffer. These became important influences on the spread of organic agriculture. Increasing environmental awareness in the general population in modern times has transformed the originally supply-driven organic movement to a demand-driven one.

Premium prices and some government subsidies attracted farmers. In the developing world, many producers farm according to traditional methods that are comparable to organic farming, but not certified, and that may not include the latest scientific advancements in organic agriculture. In other cases, farmers in the developing world have converted to modern organic methods for economic reasons.

It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects.

Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved Organic farming methods are studied in the field of agroecology.

While conventional agriculture uses synthetic pesticides and water-soluble synthetically purified fertilizers, organic farmers are restricted by regulations to using natural pesticides and fertilizers.

An example of a natural pesticide is pyrethrinwhich is found naturally in the Chrysanthemum flower.

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The principal methods of organic farming include crop rotationgreen manures and compostbiological pest controland mechanical cultivation. These measures use the natural environment to enhance agricultural productivity: Genetically modified seeds and animals are excluded. While organic is fundamentally different from conventional because of the use of carbon based fertilizers compared with highly soluble synthetic based fertilizers and biological pest control instead of synthetic pesticides, organic farming and large-scale conventional farming are not entirely mutually exclusive.

Many of the methods developed for organic agriculture have been borrowed by more conventional agriculture. For example, Integrated Pest Management is a multifaceted strategy that uses various organic methods of pest control whenever possible, but in conventional farming could include synthetic pesticides only as a last resort.

The science of agroecology has revealed the benefits of polyculture multiple crops in the same spacewhich is often employed in organic farming. Crop diversity helps environments thrive and protects species from going extinct. This biological process, driven by microorganisms such as mycorrhizaallows the natural production of nutrients in the soil throughout the growing season, and has been referred to as feeding the soil to feed the plant.

Organic farming uses a variety of methods to improve soil fertility, including crop rotation, cover cropping, reduced tillage, and application of compost.

By reducing tillage, soil is not inverted and exposed to air; less carbon is lost to the atmosphere resulting in more soil organic carbon. This has an added benefit of carbon sequestration, which can reduce green house gases and help reverse climate change.

Plants need nitrogenphosphorusand potassiumas well as micronutrients and symbiotic relationships with fungi and other organisms to flourish, but getting enough nitrogen, and particularly synchronization so that plants get enough nitrogen at the right time when plants need it mostis a challenge for organic farmers.

Intercroppingwhich is sometimes used for insect and disease control, can also increase soil nutrients, but the competition between the legume and the crop can be problematic and wider spacing between crop rows is required. Crop residues can be ploughed back into the soil, and different plants leave different amounts of nitrogen, potentially aiding synchronization.

Together these methods help to control erosion. In some cases pH may need to be amended. Natural pH amendments include lime and sulfurbut in the U.

Final study guide eco 372 essay

Farms without livestock "stockless" may find it more difficult to maintain soil fertility, and may rely more on external inputs such as imported manure as well as grain legumes and green manures, although grain legumes may fix limited nitrogen because they are harvested.

Horticultural farms that grow fruits and vegetables in protected conditions often rely even more on external inputs. Varieties of bacteria and fungi break down chemicals, plant matter and animal waste into productive soil nutrients.

In turn, they produce benefits of healthier yields and more productive soil for future crops. Increased manure improves biological activity, providing a healthier, more arable soil system and higher yields.

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Organic standards require rotation of annual crops, [45] meaning that a single crop cannot be grown in the same location without a different, intervening crop.Organic farming is a phrase coined early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices to describe what other species use, and used, to farm without synthetic chemicals.

Organic farming continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations today. It relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and places.

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