January Since the s, economic inequality in the US has increased dramatically. And in particular, the rich have gotten a lot richer.
Gross domestic product The economic growth rate is calculated from data on GDP estimated by countries' statistical agencies.
The rate of growth of GDP per capita is calculated from data on GDP and people for the initial and final periods included in the analysis of the analyst.
Determinants of per capita GDP growth[ edit ] In national income accounting, per capita output can be calculated using the following factors: Productivity improving technologies economic history Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to the accumulation of human and physical capital and the increase in productivity and creation of new goods arising from technological innovation.
Increases in productivity are the major factor responsible for per capita economic growth — this has been especially evident since the midth century.
Most of the economic growth in the 20th century was due to increased output per unit of labor, materials, energy, and land less input per widget. The balance of the growth in output has come from using more inputs.
Both of these changes increase output. The increased output included more of the same goods produced previously and new goods and services.
During the Second Industrial Revolutiona major factor of productivity growth was the substitution of inanimate power for human and animal labor. Also there was a great increase in power as steam powered electricity generation and internal combustion supplanted limited wind and water power.
Other productivity improvements included mechanized agriculture and scientific agriculture including chemical fertilizers and livestock and poultry management, and the Green Revolution. Interchangeable parts made with machine tools powered by electric motors evolved into mass productionwhich is universally used today.
Real food prices fell due to improvements in transportation and trade, mechanized agriculturefertilizersscientific farming and the Green Revolution. Great sources of productivity improvement in the late 19th century were railroads, steam ships, horse-pulled reapers and combine harvestersand steam -powered factories.
By the late 19th century both prices and weekly work hours fell because less labor, materials, and energy were required to produce and transport goods.
Higher History Past Paper Questions Scottish and British Growth of Democracy Why did democracy grow in Britain between and ? To what extent did the widening of the franchise change British politics between and ? The Economist offers authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them. Robert B. Reich is Chancellor's Professor of Public Policy at the University of California at Berkeley and Senior Fellow at the Blum Center for Developing Economies.
However, real wages rose, allowing workers to improve their diet, buy consumer goods and afford better housing. New goods and services included television, air conditioning and commercial aviation aftercreating enough new demand to stabilize the work week.
Productivity in the United States grew at an increasing rate throughout the 19th century and was most rapid in the early to middle decades of the 20th century. Demographic changes[ edit ] Demographic factors may influence growth by changing the employment to population ratio and the labor force participation rate.
Women with fewer children and better access to market employment tend to join the labor force in higher percentages. There is a reduced demand for child labor and children spend more years in school.
The increase in the percentage of women in the labor force in the U. Spending wave Other factors affecting growth[ edit ] Political institutions, property rights, and rule of law[ edit ] See also: These included new laws favorable to the establishment of business, including contract law and laws providing for the protection of private property, and the abolishment of anti-usury laws.
Enforcement of contractual rights is necessary for economic development because it determines the rate and direction of investments. When the rule of law is absent or weak, the enforcement of property rights depends on threats of violence, which causes bias against new firms because they can not demonstrate reliability to their customers.
Thanks to the underlying homogeneity of its land and people, England was able to achieve a unified legal and fiscal system since the Middle Ages that enabled it to substantially increase the taxes it raised after Many of these intermediate level institutions relied on informal private-order arrangements that combined with public-order institutions associated with states, to lay the foundations of modern rule of law states.
In many urban areas the poor "invade" private or government land to build their houses, so they do not hold title to these properties. Much unregistered property is held in informal form through various property associations and other arrangements.
Reasons for extra-legal ownership include excessive bureaucratic red tape in buying property and building. In some countries it can take over steps and up to 14 years to build on government land. Other causes of extra-legal property are failures to notarize transaction documents or having documents notarized but failing to have them recorded with the official agency.
Unregistered businesses and lack of accepted accounting methods are other factors that limit potential capital.
|wolfgang streeck||We still represent the vast majority of the work force. There are 76 million of us; we ARE the economy.|
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Specifically, "democracy increases future GDP by encouraging investment, increasing schooling, inducing economic reforms, improving public goods provision, and reducing social unrest.
However, surprisingly few research empirically examine and quantify entrepreneurship's impact on growth. This is due to endogeneity - forces that drive economic growth also drive entrepreneurship.
In other words, the empirical analysis of the impact of entrepreneurship on growth is difficult because of the joint determination of entrepreneurship and economic growth. A few papers use quasi-experimental designs, and have found that entrepreneurship and the density of small businesses indeed have a causal impact on regional growth.
Capital is subject to diminishing returns because of the amount that can be effectively invested and because of the growing burden of depreciation. In the development of economic theory the distribution of income was considered to be between labor and the owners of land and capital.
New products create demand, which is necessary to offset the decline in employment that occurs through labor-saving technology and to a lesser extent employment declines due to savings in energy and materials.
Also, the creation of new services has been more important than invention of new goods.Introduce your essay with a strong sentence: "There were many reasons for the growth of democracy in Britain " is OK, but there will be many like this.
There are more interesting ways of saying it. A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah SQA - History.
Scottish Qualifications Authority History resources, including Past Papers, Arrangements Documents and Marking Instructions.
To declare him illegitimate is to shake the foundations of the American system, but to fail to do so is to risk leveling those foundations to the ground.
The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.
The End of History and the Last Man is a book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his essay "The End of History?", published in the international affairs journal The National Interest.
In the book, Fukuyama argues that the advent [clarification needed] of Western liberal democracy may signal the endpoint of humanity's sociocultural evolution and the final form of human government.