December 15, Letter of Transmittal: We tried to gather information to make our research paper specific and coherent. Through the procedure of preparing the research paper, we have collected and used necessary data from relevant sources.
The drainage system was also clogged at several places. Only 3 'outfalls' ways out to the sea are equipped with floodgates whereas the remaining open directly into the sea for more than 24 hours. As a result, there is no way to stop the seawater from rushing into the drainage system during high tide.
Inan ambitious plan was drawn to overhaul the city's storm water drainage system which had never been reviewed in over 50 years. Implementation of the project would have ensured that rainwater did not flood the streets of Mumbai. The project was planned to have completed by and aimed to enhance the drainage system through larger diameter storm water drains and pipes, using pumps wherever necessary and removing encroachments.
The BMC committee had rejected the proposed project on the grounds that it was "too costly".
These were few of the drawbacks due to which the city suffered so gravely. Uncontrolled, unplanned development in Northern Suburbs[ edit ] Development in certain parts of Mumbai is haphazard and buildings are constructed without proper planning.
The drainage plans in northern suburbs is chalked out as and when required in a particular area and not from an overall point of view. The Environment Ministry of the Government of India was informed in the early s that sanctioning the Bandra-Kurla complex a commercial complex in northern Mumbai was leading to disaster.
No environment clearance is mandatory for large urban construction projects in northern Mumbai. Officials in the environment ministry claimed that it was not practical to impose new guidelines with retrospective effect "as there are millions of buildings".
Destruction of mangrove ecosystems[ edit ] Powai LakeMumbai on the verge of overflowing Mangrove ecosystems which exist along the Mithi River and Mahim Creek are being destroyed and replaced with construction. Hundreds of acres of swamps in Mahim creek have been reclaimed and put to use for construction by builders.
These ecosystems serve as a buffer between land and sea. Sewage and garbage dumps have also destroyed mangroves. The Bandra-Kurla complex in particular was created by replacing such swamps. In popular culture[ edit ] 1 The disaster was featured in a National Geographic Documentary.
Kapil Gupta assesses urban flood resilience, while Andharia contrasts the "widespread acts of generosity and altruism" in Mumbai with the general social disorder that was seen in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans.
Aromar Revi draws lessons from the floods for prioritising multi-hazard risk mitigation. Parthasarathy links social and environmental insecurities to show that the most marginalised groups were also the most affected by the floods.
Role of climate change[ edit ] Climate change has played an important role in causing large-scale floods across central India, especially the Mumbai floods of During —, there has been a three-fold rise in widespread extreme rainfall events, over the entire central belt of India from Mumbai to Bhubaneshwar, leading to a steady rise in the number of flash floods .
The rising number of extreme rain events are attributed to an increase in the fluctuations of the monsoon westerly winds, due to increased warming in the Arabian Sea.
This results in occasional surges of moisture transport from the Arabian Sea to the subcontinent, resulting in widespread heavy rains lasting for 2—3 days.
The Mumbai floods also occurred due to moisture surge from the Arabian Sea, and the heavy rains were not confined to Mumbai but spread over a large region across central India .
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