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Although inadequacies in quantifying personality traits and difficulties in studying estimates of time spans exceeding a few seconds have hampered scientific study, simple observation reveals marked individual differences in the ability to estimate time.
Sex differences have not been reliably established, but the… Physiological type theories The idea that people fall into certain personality type categories in relation to bodily characteristics has intrigued numerous Sports and personality development psychologists as well as their counterparts among the ancients.
The idea that people must fall into one or another rigid personality class, however, has been largely dismissed. Two general sets of theories are considered here, the humoral and the morphological.
Humoral theories Perhaps the oldest personality theory known is contained in the cosmological writings of the Greek philosopher and physiologist Empedocles and in related speculations of the physician Hippocrates.
This theory, with its view that body chemistry determines temperament, has survived in some form for more than 2, years. According to these early theorists, emotional stability as well as general health depend on an appropriate balance among the four bodily humours; an excess of one may produce a particular bodily illness or an exaggerated personality trait.
Thus, a person with an excess of blood would be expected to have a sanguine temperament—that is, to be optimistic, enthusiastic, and excitable. Too much black bile dark blood perhaps mixed with other secretions was believed to produce a melancholic temperament.
An abundance of phlegm secreted in the respiratory passages was alleged to make people stolid, apatheticand undemonstrative. As biological science has progressed, these primitive ideas about body chemistry have been replaced by more complex ideas and by contemporary studies of hormones, neurotransmitters, and substances produced within the central nervous systemsuch as endorphins.
Morphological body type theories Related to the biochemical theories are those that distinguish types of personalities on the basis of body shape somatotype.
Such a morphological theory was developed by the German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer. In his book Physique and Characterfirst published inhe wrote that among his patients a frail, rather weak asthenic body build as well as a muscular athletic physique were frequently characteristic of schizophrenic patients, while a short, rotund pyknic build was often found among manic-depressive patients.
Kretschmer extended his findings and assertions in a theory that related body build and personality in all people and wrote that slim and delicate physiques are associated with introversion, while those with rounded heavier and shorter bodies tend to be cyclothymic—that is, moody but often extroverted and jovial.
Despite early hopes that body types might be useful in classifying personality characteristics or in identifying psychiatric syndromes, the relations observed by Kretschmer were not found to be strongly supported by empirical studies.
In the s more elaborate studies by William H. Sheldon in the United States developed a system for assigning a three-digit somatotype number to people, each digit with a range from 1 to 7.
Thus, an extreme endomorph would bean extreme ectomorphand an average person Sheldon then developed a item list of traits that differentiated three separate categories of behaviours or temperaments.
The three-digit temperament scale appeared to be significantly related to the somatotype profile, an association that failed to excite personologists.
Also during the s, personality studies began to consider the broader social context in which a person lived. The American anthropologist Margaret Mead studied the patterns of cooperation and competition in 13 primitive societies and was able to document wide variations in those behaviours in different societies.Ego Development and the Personality Disorders [David P.
Ausubel] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development from conception through adolescence. Students are provided the opportunity to explore the physical, psychosocial, and cognitive factors of growth and development from both a theoretical and a .
Rita Mae Brown, an author says, “Sports strips away personality, letting the white bone of character shine leslutinsduphoenix.com gives players an opportunity to know and test themselves.” Values: “Sports is human life in microcosm,” said a sports broadcaster, Howard Cosell.
The notion of paying college football players has been an ongoing debate since the early ’s. With current television revenue resulting from NCAA football bowl games and March Madness in basketball, there is now a clamoring for compensating both football and basketball players beyond that of an athletic scholarship.
A balanced personality is a product of a sound body and a well develpoed mind. As most of elements of physical education can play a vital role in shaping the personality of a child-Games and sports promote growth and develpoment.
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is a theory of motivation.. It is concerned with supporting our natural or intrinsic tendencies to behave in effective and healthy ways.
SDT has been researched and practiced by a network of researchers around the world.. The theory was initially developed by Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, and has been elaborated and refined by scholars from many countries.