Nuremberg Trials On November 20,six months after the surrender of Nazi Germany to allied forces, twenty-one military, political, media, and business leaders of the Third Reich filed into the dock of the Palace of Justice in the devastated and occupied German city of Nuremberg.
Origin[ edit ] There were, I suppose, three possible courses: Which was it to be? Was it possible to let such atrocities go unpunished?
It will be remembered that after the First World War alleged criminals were handed over to be tried by Germanyand what a farce that was! The majority got off and such sentences as were inflicted were derisory and were soon remitted. At the beginning ofthe Polish government-in-exile asked the British and French governments to condemn the German invasion of their country.
The British initially declined to do so; The influence of the nuremberg trials, in Aprila joint declaration was issued by the British, French and Polish.
On 1 Novemberthe Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States published their "Declaration on German Atrocities in Occupied Europe"which gave a "full warning" that, when the Nazis were defeated, the Allies would "pursue them to the uttermost ends of the earth The above declaration is without prejudice to the case of the major war criminals whose offences have no particular geographical location and who will be punished by a joint decision of the Government of the Allies.
The British Prime MinisterWinston Churchillhad then advocated a policy of summary execution in some circumstances, with the use of an Act of Attainder to circumvent legal obstacles, being dissuaded from this only by talks with US and Soviet leaders later in the war.
In lateduring the Tripartite Dinner Meeting at the Tehran Conferencethe Soviet leader, Joseph Stalinproposed executing 50,—, German staff officers. US President Franklin D.
Roosevelt joked that perhaps 49, would do. Churchill, believing them to be serious, denounced the idea of "the cold blooded execution of soldiers who fought for their country" and that he would rather be "taken out in the courtyard and shot" himself than partake in any such action.
Churchill was vigorously opposed to executions "for political purposes. The plan advocated the forced de-industrialisation of Germany and the summary execution of so-called "arch-criminals", i. Roosevelt, aware of strong public disapproval, abandoned the plan, but did not adopt an alternative position on the matter.
The demise of the Morgenthau Plan created the need for an alternative method of dealing with the Nazi leadership.
Stimson and the War Department. Trumangave strong approval for a judicial process. After a series of negotiations between Britain, the US, Soviet Union and France, details of the trial were worked out.
The trials were to commence on 20 Novemberin the Bavarian city of Nuremberg. At the meetings in TehranYalta and Potsdamthe three major wartime powers, the United Kingdom, United States, and the Soviet Union, agreed on the format of punishment for those responsible for war crimes during World War II.
France was also awarded a place on the tribunal. The legal basis for the trial was established by the London Charterwhich was agreed upon by the four so-called Great Powers on 8 August and which restricted the trial to "punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis countries" Some German war crimes defendants were tried at Nuremberg, and 1, others were tried under the traditional channels of military justice.
The legal basis for the jurisdiction of the court was that defined by the Instrument of Surrender of Germany.The influence which Nuremberg and to a certain extent the Tokyo trials had upon the formulation and conception of such a declaration cannot be understated.
Nuremberg had for the first time in international law traced a definite distinction between jus ad bello a doctrine concerned exclusively on the conduct in warfare, and jus ad bellum, which concerns itself with the justice or legality of the waging of war. The trials, which began on November 20, , in the Bavarian city of Nuremberg, were a new type of event on the world stage.
The result of the Nuremberg Trials was a radical reformation of the international criminal justice system and it played an important role in writing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Trials continued in Germany to denazify Europe.
It continued to be discussed . The Influence of the Nuremberg Trials on International Law The Nuremberg Trials were a critical point in the history of international law because it established the fact that humanity has the need of an international shield to shelter and protect.
The Nuremberg trials were a series of trials held between and in which the Allies prosecuted German military leaders, political officials, industrialists, and financiers for crimes they had committed during world war ii.
The influence which Nuremberg and to a certain extent the Tokyo trials had upon the formulation and conception of such a declaration cannot be understated. Nuremberg had for the first time in international law traced a definite distinction between jus ad bello a doctrine concerned exclusively on the conduct in warfare, and jus ad bellum, which concerns itself with the justice or legality of the waging of war.