How to Write a Summary of an Article?
The video traces the drug war from President Nixon to the draconian Rockefeller Drug Laws to the emerging aboveground marijuana market that is poised to make legal millions for wealthy investors doing the same thing that generations of people of color have been arrested and locked up for. After you watch the video, read on to learn more about the discriminatory history of the war on drugs.
The Early Stages of Drug Prohibition Many currently illegal drugs, such as marijuana, opium, coca, and psychedelics have been used for thousands of years for both medical and spiritual purposes. So why are some drugs legal and other drugs illegal today? It's not based on any scientific assessment of the relative risks of these drugs — but it has everything to do with who is associated with these drugs.
The first anti-opium laws in the s were directed at Chinese immigrants. The first anti-cocaine laws in the early s were directed at black men in the South.
The first anti-marijuana laws, in the Midwest and the Southwest in the s and 20s, were directed at Mexican migrants and Mexican Americans. Today, Latino and especially black communities are still subject to wildly disproportionate drug enforcement and sentencing practices.
Nixon and the Generation Gap In the s, as drugs became symbols of youthful rebellion, social upheaval, and political dissent, the government halted scientific research to evaluate their medical safety and efficacy.
A top Nixon aide, John Ehrlichman, later admitted: The Nixon campaign inand the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs?
Of course we did. Inthe commission unanimously recommended decriminalizing the possession and distribution of marijuana for personal use. Nixon ignored the report and rejected its recommendations.
Between andhowever, eleven states decriminalized marijuana possession.
In JanuaryPresident Jimmy Carter was inaugurated on a campaign platform that included marijuana decriminalization. In Octoberthe Senate Judiciary Committee voted to decriminalize possession of up to an ounce of marijuana for personal use.
Within just a few years, though, the tide had shifted. Proposals to decriminalize marijuana were abandoned as parents became increasingly concerned about high rates of teen marijuana use.
Marijuana was ultimately caught up in a broader cultural backlash against the perceived permissiveness of the s. The s and 90s: Drug Hysteria and Skyrocketing Incarceration Rates The presidency of Ronald Reagan marked the start of a long period of skyrocketing rates of incarceration, largely thanks to his unprecedented expansion of the drug war.
The number of people behind bars for nonviolent drug law offenses increased from 50, in to overby In the late s, a political hysteria about drugs led to the passage of draconian penalties in Congress and state legislatures that rapidly increased the prison population.
Inthe proportion of Americans polled who saw drug abuse as the nation's "number one problem" was just percent. The figure grew through the remainder of the s until, in Septemberit reached a remarkable 64 percent — one of the most intense fixations by the American public on any issue in polling history.
Within less than a year, however, the figure plummeted to less than 10 percent, as the media lost interest. The draconian policies enacted during the hysteria remained, however, and continued to result in escalating levels of arrests and incarceration.
Although Bill Clinton advocated for treatment instead of incarceration during his presidential campaign, after his first few months in the White House he reverted to the drug war strategies of his Republican predecessors by continuing to escalate the drug war.
Notoriously, Clinton rejected a U. Sentencing Commission recommendation to eliminate the disparity between crack and powder cocaine sentences. Yet, a month before leaving office, Clinton asserted in a Rolling Stone interview that "we really need a re-examination of our entire policy on imprisonment" of people who use drugs, and said that marijuana use "should be decriminalized.
Bush arrived in the White House as the drug war was running out of steam — yet he allocated more money than ever to it.Under the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, all states must license a marriage between two people of the same sex and recognize such a marriage if .
Why Our Drug Laws Have Failed and What We Can Do About It: A Judicial Indictment of the War on Drugs [James Gray] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A California Superior Court judge attacks the War on Drugs, describing the harm it has caused and laying out the other options--ranging from education and drug treatment to different strategies for taking the profit out of drug.
Aug 25, · During the Prohibition era, speakeasies ushered in the age of jazz leslutinsduphoenix.com the “Great Migration,” black musicians from the South moved north to cities such as Chicago where they were amply employed by gangsters who owned and operated speakeasies.
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from to During the nineteenth century, alcoholism, family violence, and saloon-based political corruption prompted activists, led by pietistic Protestants, to end the alcoholic beverage trade to cure the ill society and weaken the.
Why Prohibition Failed to Control American Alcohol Consumption A single sketchy light flickers in a dark room. The smell of pure, hard liquor (most likely moonshine), permeates the air.
It began as a duty, operated as a mixed blessing for Kings, and wound up as one of the "true, ancient, and indubitable" rights of Englishmen. From as early as , the defense of the realm rested in the hands of ordinary Englishmen. Under the English militia system, every able-bodied freeman was expected to defend his society and to provide his own arms, paid for and possessed by himself.